Precision Farming in Capsicum Grown in Open fields

Precision Farming in Capsicum Grown in Open fields

Author:Dr M.Prabhakar (IIHR retd)

http://calderonproduce.com/images/bestpeppers.jpg

Capsicums are known to lower the fat stored in blood corpuscles, called triglycerides, and thus help in burning calories. This can vastly improve the body metabolism. Moreover, this vegetable is considered beneficial in weight loss as it is low in fat and carbohydrates.It contains antioxidants like beta carotene (carotenoid), lutein and zeaxanthin (phytochemicals) and vitamin C. After consumption of capsicum, the body converts beta carotene into retinol, which is one of the most usable forms of vitamin A. These combine together and minimize damage caused by the free radicals to the tissues, arteries and nerves.

Variety Popular commercial hybrids.
Soil type Well drained fertile soils with a pH range of 6.0 to 7.0.
Season of Transplanting June-July & Sept-Oct.
Seed/seedling requirement 120 g or 12000 seedlings
Nursery raising Pro-tray method: Trays filled with cocopeat and protected with nylon net house.
Seedlings age 35 days old seedlings. Harden the seedlings before transplanting
Land preparation (main field) Raised bed method: 10-15cm height, 75cm width, convenient length, 45 cm inter-bed spacing.
FYM application Apply 10 tonnes of enriched FYM.
Neem cake application Apply neem cake @250kg.
Fertilizer Dose 60:45:60 kg N:P:K
Basal fertilizer application Apply 15-15-12 kg NPK (60 kg CAN or 75 kg ammonium sulphate or 32 kg urea + 93 kg single super phosphate + 20 kg Muriate of potash). Mix well and level the beds properly.
Laying of drip line Place one in-line drip lateral at the center of the bed for which 2670 meter length of lateral pipe is required.
Polyethylene mulching 2670 meter length of mulch film of 1.2m width and 30micron thickness (90 kg)
Spacing, plant population and transplanting Two crop row is maintained per bed of 90cm width. Spacing between the row in the bed is 60 cm. Make holes of 5cm diameter (7.5cm diameter if hot sunny day) at a distance of 45cm along the crop row. 12000 seedlings can be accommodated in one acre. Transplant stocky 42 days old seedlings at the center of the hole. Avoid the seedlings touching the mulch film.
Irrigation Run the drip irrigation daily for a duration of 20 to 40 minutes depending on the crop stage, season and emitter discharge.
Fertigation Schedule fertigation once in 3 days starting from 21 days and ending at 129 days after transplanting for a 5 month duration crop, thus requiring 37 fertigations.
Fertigation schedule (using water soluble fertilizers once in 3 days) 0-20 days: No fertigation

21-36 days: 2.0 kg of 19-19-19/fertigation (6 fertigations)

39-57 days: 3.0 kg of 19-19-19 +1.0 kg KNO3+1.0 kg CaNO3/ fertigation (7 fertigations)

60-129 days: 5.0 kg of 19-19-19 +1.5 kg KNO3 + 2.5 kg CaNO3/fertigation (24 fertigations)

(153 kg 19-all + 43 kg KNO3 + 67kg CaNO3)

Foliar nutrition Give foliar sprays @5g/litre using foliar spray grade fertilizers containing Ca,Mg, Fe, Mn, B, Cu, Zn three times starting from 45 days after transplanting at an interval of 15 days

Insect Pest management

General recommendations: Apply one more dose of neem cake @100 kg per acre (containing 8-10 % oil) kept in the form of heaps (8-10 places) throughout the field at 30-40 days after transplanting.

Thrips

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Deformed pepper fruit (no economic value) after damage from an infestation of the chilli thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood.
Symptoms:

The adult and larval stages feed by piercing the plant surface with their mouthparts and sucking the contents of plant cells. This causes white or brown spots on the leaves where the plant cells have been destroyed.

Management:

Spray Pulvarized Neem Seed Powder Extract PNSPE (4%) or neem/ pongamia soap ( 8-10g/l) at 10 days interval

or

Spray Fipronil 5 SC (1.0ml/l) or Emamectin benzoate 5 SG (0.125g/l) or Dimethoate 30 EC (2.0 ml/l)

or

spray half of the recommended dose of any insecticide mixed with pongamia oil (2 ml/l of water) + sticker (0.5 ml/l) + water and made into emulsion by shaking thoroughly .

Mites (white mites)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://chilli-seedz.com/WP/wp-content/uploads/2015/07/Whitefly-1.jpg Image result for white mites in chilli
Symptoms:

Downward curling and crinkling of leaves giving an inverted boat shaped appearance, elongation of Petiole i.e. rat tail symptom, stunted growth, on fruit scaring is very common with reduced fruit size.

Management:

Spray PNSPE (40 g/l) or Neem soap (10 g/l) or Wettable Sulphur 80 WP (3.0g/l)

or Diafenthiuron 50 WP (1.0 g/l) or Emamectin Benzoate 5 SG (0.3 ml/l) or Milbemectin 40SP (0.65ml/l)

Aphids

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms:

Aphids, mealybugs and scales are the most common sap sucking insects in the garden. They appear on plant parts in clusters and feed on the sweet sap by inserting a needle-like sucking tube into the plant and drawing out the juice. After the sap has been used by the insects, it is excreted as honeydew, which forms the base on which a black fungus grows. This fungus is known as sooty mould and its presence reduces photosynthesis and discolours affected fruit. Aphids also act as vectors for transmitting mosaic virus disease.

Honeydew is used as a food source by ants, which actively transport the insects (aphids, mealybugs and scales) and position them on the plant. Ants may spread sapsucker infestations between plants via underground tunnels.

Management:

Aphids can be removed from plants with a jet of water or sprayed with garlic and chilli sprays. Sprays with horticultural soap will desiccate and suffocate the insects and horticultural oil will smother the insects but these organic products should not be used when the weather is above 32°C as plant leaves can burn.

Aphids are especially attracted to mustard. You can plant these near more valuable plants as traps for the aphids.

Spray PNSPE (40 g/l) or Fipronil 5 sc (1.0 ml/l) or Quinalphos 25 EC (2.0 ml/l) or Oxydemeton-methyl 25 EC (2.0 ml/l).

Borers (Helicoverpa and Spodoptera spp)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image result for Helicoverpa on capsicum
Symptoms:

Young larvae feed on flower buds and young pod by making a circular hole. Later, the larvae feed on seeds.

Management:

Use marigold as trap crop (one row of marigold for every 18 rows of chilli) for managing H. armigera. Collect and destroy eggs masses and immature larvae of S. litura

Spray specific NPV@ 100 LE/acre in the evening as soon as young caterpillars (egg masses in spodoptera) of the borers are noticed. Mix 1% jaggery and sticker (0.5 ml/L) before spray. Collect and destroy the borer-infested fruits.

Note : NPV (Nucleopolyhedrovirus) belongs to a group of insect diseases called baculoviruses that infect and kill the larvae of moths and sawflies. They do not harm humans, wildlife or other insects. NPV can kill young larvae within 4 days of ingestion, and older larvae within 5-7 days, depending on dose and temperature.

Spray Indoxacarb 14.5 SC (1.0 ml/l) or Thiodicarb 75WP (1.0 g/l) or Chlorantraniliprole 18.5 EC (0.3 ml/l) or Deltamethrin 2.8 EC (1.0 ml/l) or Emamectin Benzoate 5 SG (0.4 ml/l) or Fipronil 5 SC (2.0 ml/l) or Flubendiamide 20 WG (0.25 ml/l)

Tobacco caterpillar (Spodoptera)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms:

Small holes on leaves. Skeletonized leaves and the affected pods drop off or develop white color on drying.

Management:

(Egg masses and young caterpillars): Collect and destroy egg masses and gregarious larvae.

Spray Novaluron 10 EC (0.65 ml/l) or Novaluron 5.25 EC + Indoxocarb 4.5 SC (1.70 ml/l)

Cutworms

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 2. Characteristic damage from cutworm, cut seedling.
Symptoms:

Cutworms are the larvae of several species of night-flying moths. Cutworms feed at night and will not generally be observed on plants or on the soil surface during the day.

Management:

Adopt poison baiting: Mix rice bran (10-12 kg/acre) with jaggery (gur) or molasses (2 kg) in the morning. Allow it to ferment till evening. In the evening, mix this with an insecticide like methomyl or thiodicarb (250 g) and broadcast in main plot. Cutworms get attracted, feed on the fermented poison bait and get killed. Baiting has to be repeated 2 or 3 times more if the incidence of the cut worm or armyworm is high.

Gall Midge

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/sites/default/files/Damaged%20fruit%20due%20to%20gall%20midge%201.jpg http://agropedia.iitk.ac.in/sites/default/files/chilli%20gall%20midge.jpg
Symptoms:

Maggots feed on the ovary of the flower bud, flower and tender fruits. Affected bud remains unopened, while the affected flower dries and drops. Severe flower and fruit drop. Affected fruits do not develop. Reduction in yield, fruit size, seed number and production of malformed fruits.

Management:

Spray PNSPE (40 g/l) during flower bud stage and repeat at 7-10 days interval

Disease management

Damping-off of seedlings

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

http://www.chillilicious.co.uk/user/damping%20off.jpg
Symptoms:

Seed may rot or the seedlings may be killed before they emerge from the soil. Stem of young seedlings may also be attacked after emergence showing water soaking lesions and shriveling of stem which fall over and die.

Management:

Damping -off of seedlings: Drench seedlings with Captan 50 W (2.0 g/l) or Copper oxychloride 50 WP (2.0 g/l) or copper hydroxide (2.0 g/l) in nursery stage (15 days after sowing) and once before transplanting and once again two weeks after transplanting.

Powdery mildew

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms:

  • White powdery coating appears mostly on the lower surface
  • Sometimes the powdery coating can also be seen on the upper surface.
  • Correspondingly on the upper surface yellow patches are seen
  • Severe infection results in the drying and shedding of affected leaves.
  • Powdery growth can also be seen on young fruits, and branches.
  • Diseased fruits do not grow further and may drop down.
Management:

Spray Wettable Sulphur (3.0g/l) (before flowering only) or Tridemorph (1.0ml/l) or Hexaconazole (0.5ml/l) or Dinocap (1ml/l) or Flusilazole (0.3 ml/l) or Myclobutanil (1.0 g/l) or Neem oil emulsified (10-15ml/l) at 10-15 days interval from the onset of the disease.

Phytophthora blight

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms:

Caused by a water-borne fungus called Phytophthora capsici and is generally found in wet waterlogged areas. The fungus invades all plant parts causing the syndromes leaf blight, fruit rot and root rot. Plants suffering from this conditions often wilt and die very quickly.

Management:

Spray Mancozeb (2.0 g/l) or Copper oxychloride (3.0g/l) or Bordeaux mixture (1%), Copper hydroxide (2.0g/l) or Fosetyl-Al (2.0 g/l) or combination of Dimethomorph (1.0g/l) + Metiram (2.0g/l)

Anthracnose

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image result for Anthracnose in chilli
Symptoms:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Mj200tIe8w

Anthracnose disease has been reported to be a major constraint in chilli production in tropical subtropical countries causing huge losses. Symptoms are seen on leaf, stem and fruit. Small, circular spots on the skin of the fruit and expanded in the direction of long axis of the fruit. The fruits with many spots drop off prematurely resulting in heavy loss of yield. Fungus may also attack the fruit stalk and spread along the stem causing dieback symptoms.

Management:

Spray Carbendizim (1.0g/l) or Thiophanate methyl (1.0g/l) or Tricyclozole (0.6g/l) or comination of Tricyclozole +Mancozeb (2.0 g/l).

Leaf spot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms:

The leaf spot disease is seen both in nursery and main field. The disease causes loss due to defoliation and reduction in photosynthesis. The disease first manifests as small brownish spots on the leaves and graduallydevelops into the big circular grayish spots with whitish center. Later they form into large lesions due to coalescing of the spots. Infection on fruit stalk and calyx is also very common in severe cases.

Management:

Spray Carbendizim (1.0g/l) or Mancozeb (2.0g/l) or combination of Carbendazim+ Mancozeb (2.0g/l).

Alternaria Blight Management:

Drench seedlings with Copper oxychloride (3.0 g/l) 12days after sowing and repeat one day before transplanting. Spray Copper oxychloride (3.0 g/l) or Chlorothalonil (2.0g/l) or Mancozeb (2.0 g/l) or Propineb (2.0 g/l) or Metiram (2.0 g/l) or Pyraclostrobin + Metiram (2.0g/l) or Tebuconazole + Trifloxystrobin 75 WG (0.7 g/l) at 10-15 days interval or as and when required.

Bacterial wilt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Image result for Bacterial wilt chilli
Symptoms:

The first symptoms start with the wilting of the leaves. After a few days the entire plant will wilt with no leaf yellowing.

Management:

Drenching of seedling with Pseudomonas fluorescens

Leaf curl (White fly management)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms:

Leaf curl disease is transmitted by white flies ( Bemisia tabaci). The disease is characterised by puckering of leaf blade, and gradual reduction in the size. Diseased plants flower poorly with low fruit set.In case of leaf curl the disease is characterised by curling of the leaves, and thickening and swelling of veins. In advanced stages the whole plant appears bushy, with stunted growth and fewer flowers.

Management:

Uproot and destroy the leaf curl infected plants up to first harvest.

Spray Imidacloprid 200S L (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxom 25 WP (0.3g/l) in nursery after 15 days of sowing and after 15 days of planting in main field

Drench the required seedling with Imidacloprid 200SL (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxom 25 WP (0.3g/l) one day before transplanting

Chilli Veinal Mottle & CMV (Aphid management)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Symptoms:

Leaves of infected plants show dark-green mottles, with dark-green spotting, patching and banding adjacent to the veins. These viruses are transmitted by aphids.

Management:

Uproot and destroy the infected plants up to first harvest.

Spray Imidacloprid 200S L (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxom 25 WP (0.3g/l) in nursery after 15 days of sowing and after 15 days of planting in main field

Drench the seedling with Imidacloprid 200SL (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxom 25 WP (0.3g/l) one day before transplanting

Harvesting and yield: Harvesting begins 60 days after transplanting. Yield: 20 tonnes.

Note: All recommendations and yields are for one acre area

 

*FYM Enrichment with Bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticide

 

Well decomposed Farm yard manure (one tonne) is thoroughly mixed Azotobacteror Azospirillum, Phosphate Solubilizing bacteria (PSB), Trichodermaharzianum or Trichodermaviridae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Paecilomyceslilacinus or Pochoniachlamydosporia each @ 1 kg. This is then moistened by sprinkling water and covered with wet gunny cloth kept to incubate for about 3- 4 weeks (15-20 days). For better aeration and decomposition it is advised to give a turn in between at around 10-12 days. This enriched FYM should be mixed with remaining nine tonnes of FYM before applying to the main field.

 

**Neem cake Enrichment with Bio-fertilizers and bio-pesticide

 

Powdered neem cake (100 kg) with oil content (>10 %) is thoroughly mixed Azotobacteror Azospirillum Phosphate Solubilizing bacteria (PSB), Trichodermaharzianum or Trichodermaviridae, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Bacillus subtilis, Paecilomyceslilacinus or Pochoniachlamydosporia each @ 1 kg. This is then moistened by sprinkling water and covered with wet gunny cloth kept to incubate for about 10 days. If it is to be stored for a few more days, for better aeration and decomposition it is advised to give a turn. This enriched neem cake should be applied to the main field along with farm yard manure application at the time of bed preparation for planting. This enrichment is required, if enriched FYM was not used/applied.

 

***Poison baiting: Mix rice bran (10-12 kg/acre) with jaggery (gur) or molasses (2 kg) in the morning. Allow it to ferment till evening. In the evening, mix this with an insecticide like methomyl or thiodicarb (250 g) and broadcast in main plot. Cutworms get attracted, feed on the fermented poison bait and get killed. Baiting has to be repeated 2 or 3 times more if the incidence of the cut worm or armyworm is high.

 

Baking soda spray: Baking soda is a white soluble compound that has fungicidal properties when used as spray on diseased plants. It also serves as protectant (on plants) from disease-causing pathogens. Mix 1 tbsp of baking soda and 1 tbsp of dormant oil or vegetable oil. Add 4 liters of water and stir well. Add one tbsp of dish washing liquid soap and stir it again. Fill-in water can or sprinkler and spray. Stir or shake the container from time to time to prevent soda from separating. Repeat application every after 2 weeks. Apply baking soda spray as soon as the symptoms appear. Be sure to include the undersides of the plants’ foliage. Spray in the early morning or late afternoon.

Bordeaux mix: There are many copper compounds that are used as fungicides. The most common is Bordeaux mix which is a combination of copper sulphate and hydrated lime.

Copper sulphate, lime and water in the ratio 1:1:100 are used for preparing one per cent Bordeaux mixture. In order to prepare 100 Litres of mixture one kg of copper sulphate is dissolved in 50 Litres water. In another vessel one kg of fresh quick lime is slaked by sprinkling water and the volume of lime solution is made up to 50 Litres water. The copper sulphate solution is poured into lime solution by stirring the mixture. Both solutions can also be poured into a third vessel with constant stirring. The prepared Bordeaux mixture should be strained through a cloth/strainer before spraying.

Spray plants thoroughly preferably early in the morning, in a dry and sunny day. In this way, the plants have the time to dry and the solution can not penetrate into the leaves’ tissues. Constantly shake the sprayer while in the process of application to prevent the solution from clogging.

 

Cattle-dung and Urine Extract: Mix Cattle-dung (5 kg) and urine (5 liters) thoroughly in 5 liters of water in a container and allow this mixture for 4 days by keeping a lid over the container. After 4 days, filter and add 100 grams of lime to this solution. Dilute the solution in 80 liters of water, which is sufficient for spraying an acre. Spraying cow dung urine solution prevents eggs laying by the moth, e.g. Helivoerpa and Spodoptera, etc. It is found to give protection against some diseases and the sprayed crop looks green and healthy.

 

Tobacco Decoction: Boil 1 kg tobacco dust in 10 liters of water for 30 minutes to attain coffee red colour. Add water to the boiling solution to make 10 litres volume. Cool and filter the decoction using a thin muslin cloth. Add soap @ 2 g/l and dilute to 80 to 100 litres for spray. This preparation is effective against whitefly, aphids, and leafhoppers. Tobacco decoction should not be used frequently as it is toxic to natural enemies.

 

Precision agriculture, as the name implies, means application of precise and correct amount of inputs like water, fertilizer, pesticides etc. at the correct time to the crop for increasing its productivity and maximizing its yields. Precision agriculture management practices can significantly reduce the amount of nutrient and other crop inputs used while boosting yields. Farmers thus obtain a return on their investment by saving on water, pesticide, and fertilizer costs. Applying the right amount of inputs in the right place and at the right time benefits crops, soils and groundwater, and thus the entire crop cycle. Consequently, precision agriculture has become a cornerstone of sustainable agriculture, since it respects crops, soils and farmers.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *