Precision Farming in French Beans and Pole beans

Precision Farming in French Beans and Pole beans

Variety Arka Anoop, Arka Suvidha, Arka Komal and popular commercial varieties.

Soil type Well drained fertile soils with a pH range of 6.0 to 70.
Season July-Aug, Oct- Nov
See requirement 15-20kg kg depending on seed size. For pole bean 4kg/acre.
Land preparation Raised bed method: 10-15cm height, 60 cm width, convenient length, 45cm inter-bed spacing. For Pole bean: 105cm width, 45cm inter-bed spacing.
FYM application Apply 10 tonnes of enriched FYM.
Neem cake application Apply neem cake @ 250kg.
Fertilizer Dose 20:30:20 kg. For pole bean:30-40-30 kg N:P:K.
Basal fertilizer application Apply 5-8-5 kg N: P: K (25 kg Ammonium sulphate + 50 kg Mono ammonium phosphate + 10 kg Muriate of potash). Mix well and level the beds properly.
Laying of drip line Place one in-line drip lateral at the center of the bed for which 3800 meter length of lateral pipe is required. For pole bean 2660m is sufficient.
Polyethylene mulching 3800 meter length of mulch film of 1.0m width and 30micron thickness is required (105kg). For pole bean 2660m is sufficient (90kg).
Spacing, plant population Two rows per bed. Make holes of 5cm diameter at a distance of 40cm between rows and 15 cm within the crop row. The plant density is 50800 one acre. Dibble seeds exactly at the centre of the hole to avoid the emerging seedlings touching the mulch film. Pole bean: Two rows in a bed. 75cm between rows and 30cm between seeds in a row. The plant density is 18000/acre. Plants have to be supported with wooden poles, GI/plastic wire and gunny twine.
Irrigation Run the drip irrigation daily for a duration of 20 to 40 minutes depending on the crop stage, season and emitter discharge.
Fertigation Schedule fertigation once in 3 days starting from 15 days and ending at 66 days after sowing for a 2½ month duration crop, thus requiring 18 fertigations.

Pole bean: continue up to 87 days after sowing for a 3½ month crop, thus requiring 25 fertigations.

Water soluble Fertilizers for fertigation 0-14 days: No fertigation.

15-30 days: 2.0kg 19-19-19 /fertigation (6 fertigations)

33-45 days: 3.0 kg 19-19-19 +1.0 kg KNO3 + 2.0 kg Mono Ammonium Phospate/fertigations (5 fertigations)

48-66 days: 4.0 kg 19-19-19 + 1.0 kg KNO3 + 1.5 kg Mono Ammonium Phosphate/fertigation (7 fertigations)

(55 kg 19-all+12 kg KNO3 + 20 kg MAP for bush bean).

Pole bean: continue fertigation upto 87 days after sowing (14 fertigations) (83 kg 19-all+19 kg KNO3 + 31 kg MAP).

Foliar nutrition Give foliar sprays @5g/litre using foliar spray grade fertilizers containing CA, Mg, Fe, Mn, B, Cu, Zn three times at 45, 60 and 75 days days after sowing.
Neem cake application Apply neem cake @ 250kg/acre to the beds treated with bio-agents. Note: This may affect germination
Staking For pole beans Plants have to be supported with wooden poles (Inverted ‘V’ shape, GI/plastic wire and gunny twine.

Insect Pest management

Stem fly Image result for Stem fly in beans Image result for Stem fly in pole beans
Symptoms: 

The female fly pierces the young leaves to lay eggs and sucks the exuding sap. This leaves yellow blotches on the leaves, which are the first signs of bean fly attack and may serve as early symptom useful for monitoring the presence of this pest in the field. Maggots mine their way from the leaves down to the base of the stem, where they complete their development. Maggot feeding destroys the tissue causing the stem to swell and split and reducing formation of lateral roots.

Start scouting for presence of pest 2-3 weeks after germination by inspecting the leaves and stem base for symptoms. Look out for:

– swelling and cracking on the base of the stem

– oviposition marks on the leaves

– larvae and pupae in the stem base (root collar)

Management: 

Avoid planting in May-June when the incidence is generally high.

If stem fly adults are observed on the plants immediately after germination, spray pulverised neem seedpowder extract (PNSPE) (40 g/l) or Neem soap/ pongamia soap (10 g/l) at 7, 10 and 15 days after sowing.

Otherwise give only two sprays at 10 and 15 days after sowing.

Chemical treatment: If there is any good rain fall during this period then these botanicals will be washed off. Hence, spray Quinalphos 25 EC (1.5 ml/l) for the management of stem fly in beans at 10 and 15 days after sowing.

Thrips http://www.infonet-biovision.org/sites/default/files/plant_health/cropsfruitsvegetables/914.400x400.jpeg Image result for Thrips in beans
Symptoms: 

Thrips are small insects, about 0.04 inch long. The characteristic symptom of attack is a silvery sheen of the attacked plant tissue, and white or silvery patches and streaks on leaves, fruits and pods. Affected tissue will dry up when the damage is severe.

Management: 

Spray (4%) or neem/ pongamia soap ( 8-10g/l) after flowering, if required give sprays pulverised neem seed powder extract (PNSPE) at 10 days interval

Leaf hopper http://msue.anr.msu.edu/uploads/images/8-8PLH-dry-beansFRED.jpg https://www.vegedge.umn.edu/sites/vegedge.umn.edu/files/styles/panopoly_image_original/public/yellowing.jpg?itok=IR20eSuc
Symptoms: 

Both adults and nymphs feed by puncturing the undersides of leaves and sucking out plant juices. Their toxic saliva causes spotting (white specks), yellowing, leaf curling, stunting and distortion of plants. They are also responsible for transmitting the organisms causing virus diseases in plants.

Management: 

This pest is serious during North East monsoon period. Hence, during this period spray pulverised neem seed powder extract (PNSPE) (40 g/l) or Neem soap (10 g/l) at 7-10 days interval according to pest infestation.

Disease management

Root Rot Complex (Fusarium solani, Rhizoctonia solani, Pythium spp., Charla basicola)
Symptoms: 

Symptoms can appear on plants at any stage of development. Early-season infection results in typical pre-emergence (seed decay) and post-emergence (seedling death) “damping-off” symptoms, thereby reducing plant stands, referred to as poor emergence. Plants that survive early infection (damping-off) or become infected later display characteristic “root rot” symptoms, such as discoloured roots, stunting, wilting, etc.

Management: 

Seed treatment with Carbendazim (2.0 g/kg)

Rust
Symptoms: 

Bean rust is caused by the fungus Uromyces appendiculatus and first appears as small pale spots (lesions), which become yellow with a small dark center. These spots enlarge and produce brick-red rust (summer) spores to spread the disease.

Management: 

Rust resistant varieties like Arka Anoop

Spray Triadimefon (1.0g/l) or Propiconazole (0.5 ml/l) or Bitertanol (1.0 g/l)

Powdery Mildew Image result for powdery mildew in beans
Symptoms: 

Symptoms consist of greyish-white fungal growth on the surface of leaves, stems and pods. It can cause significant yield loss if it develops before or at flowering, particularly if the crop is under moisture stress. Late infections during the pod-filling stage can cause leaf drop but do not appear to seriously affect yield.

Management: 

Spray Triadimefon (1.0g/l) or Propiconazole (0.5 ml/l) or Bitertanol (1.0 g/l).

Angular leaf spot
Symptoms: 

Lesions on leaves usually appear as brown spots with a tan or silvery centre that are initially confined to tissue between major veins, which gives it an angular appearance.

Management: 

Spray Carbendazim (1.0 g/l) or Tricyclozole (0.6g/l)

Common blight of bean
Symptoms: 

Common blight in beans is the most prevalent of bacterial bean diseases. Also called common bacterial blight, it shows up in misshapen leaves and pods. The leaves first start to develop small wet lesions that grow in size and dry out, usually becoming over an inch wide, brown and papery, with a yellow border.

Management: 

Spray Bordeaux mixture or Copper Hydroxide or Copper Oxychloride (0.3 g/l)

Bean golden mosaic
Symptoms: 

Bean golden mosaic virus (BGMV) is transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. The main symptoms characteristic of the disease are the yellow-green mosaic of leaves, variable levels of curling, generally stunted growth.

Management: 

Follow Vector (Whitefly, Thrips etc) Management practices.

Vector (Whitefly, Thrips etc) Management:

  • Growing African marigolds and nasturtiums has been reported to discourage whiteflies.
  • Neem-based pesticides are reported to control young nymphs, inhibit growth and development of older nymphs, and reduce egg laying by adult whiteflies. They also reduce significantly the risk of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus transmission. Efficacy of neem-based pesticides can be enhanced by adding 0.1 to 0.5% of soft soap.
  • Yellow sticky traps usually used to monitor the presence of whiteflies for timing of interventions, have also been used as a control method for low density infestations in enclosed environments. Yellow plastic gallon containers mounted upside down on sticks coated with transparent automobile grease or used motor oil. These should be placed in and around the field at about 10 cm above the foliage. Clean and re-oil when traps are covered with flies.

Chemical Treatment: Spray Imidacloprid 200S L (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxom 25 WP (0.3g/l) in nursery after 15 days of sowing and after 15 days of planting in main field

Bean common Mosaic
Symptoms: 

Bean common mosaic virus causes common mosaic symptoms that appear as a light green-yellow and dark green mosaic pattern developing on the trifoliolate leaves. Leaf discoloration is usually accompanied by puckering, blistering, distortion, and a downward curling and rolling. Virus is spread by Aphids hence Aphids control is important.

Management: 

Chemical Treatment: Spray Imidacloprid 200S L (0.3ml/l) or Thiomethoxom 25 WP (0.3g/l) in nursery after 15 days of sowing and after 15 days of planting in main field

Refer http://learningstore.uwex.edu/assets/pdfs/A3374.PDF for elaborate discussion on bean diseases.

Harvesting and yield Harvesting starts after 45 DAS. Yield: About 10 tonnes in bush beans and 15 tonnes in pole beans.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *